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Elizabeth Hauke

Document Type


Publication Date



Athletic Training

Faculty Advisor

Nicole Chimera


Sport specialization is a risk factor for injury. Larger, suburban or private high-school attendance and higher family income are factors contributing to sports specialization. Specialization has been investigated at high-school and collegiate levels; however, no studies compare specialization between all three NCAA Divisions. The purpose of this study is to examine high school specialization of NCAA Division I, II, and III athletes. We hypothesize that Division III athletes, athletes who attended larger or private high schools, and athletes with higher estimated parental income will have a higher distribution of specialized athletes. Athletes at Western New York collegiate institutions will complete a survey ( regarding participation habits, high school size, hometown classification, and parental income. Chi-square analysis will determine frequencies of specialization between groups; Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA will determine specialization differences between groups.