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Document Type


Publication Date



Physical Therapy

Faculty Advisor

John J. Stachura, PT DPT MBA Cert. MDT FAAOMPT


Iontophoresis is a modality that uses bipolar electrodes to transfer ions in solution through the intact skin. Iontophoresis, a painless and noninvasive intervention, provides patients and practitioners with an alternative treatment from traditional needle injections for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. This project is a literature review of the effectiveness of iontophoresis in modulating pain and inflammation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions.