History & Political Science

Document Type


Publication Source

Journal of Political Marketing. Volume 18, Issue 1-2, Pages 92-118.

Publication Date



The 2016 presidential nominating process presented the American public with an interesting and tumultuous set of contests. Despite the unique nature of both the Democratic and Republican contests, the candidates stuck to the usual campaign activities to help influence voters. However, one of these campaign tactics, campaign visits, has been vastly understudied. Using a uniquely compiled dataset and a hierarchical linear model, I am able to test how campaign effects, including visits, as well as an individual’s predispositions impacted vote choice in the 2016 presidential nominating contests. The results demonstrate that the 2016 presidential nominating contests were decided based on a combination of both campaign activities and individual-level predictors.


campaign advertisements, campaign effects, campaign visits, presidential nominations




This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in the Journal of Political Marketing, first published online on 4/24/2018. The final version of the article is available at:



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