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Maria Dziekan

Document Type


Publication Date



Natural Sciences

Faculty Advisor

Douglas Kalinowski, PhD


Antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasing public health concern. Studies have shown that tolerance to biocides may positively correlate with increased antibiotic resistance. Triclosan, a biocide found in soaps and other products, is used to prevent the growth and spread of opportunistic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, when exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of a biocide, the bacteria may develop a tolerance to "the bacterias". Sub-inhibitory concentrations arise in the events of concentration gradients when in use, as well as residual biocide after use. Various mechanisms contribute to this tolerance, such as efflux pumps or changes in external cell structures. These general mechanisms may also impede the interaction between antibiotics and the bacteria they target. This research investigates how growth of E. coli and S. aureus in the presence of a sub-inhibitory concentration of triclosan affects resistance to various antibiotics.