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Document Type


Publication Date



Physical Therapy

Faculty Advisor

Jennifer Bogulski, PT, DPT, OCS


Ice is a modality that uses thermal energy to achieve many effects within the musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and circulatory systems. Some physiological changes that occur with the use of ice are increased pain threshold, vasodilation, and decreased metabolic rate. A common clinical use of ice is to alleviate pain. The sensation of pain is altered by reducing nerve conduction velocity, causing an increase in pain threshold and resulting in a decrease in the sensation of pain experienced by the patient. This project offers a review the literature to determine the efficacy of the different modes of ice application for modulating pain.