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Document Type


Publication Date



Physical Therapy

Faculty Advisor

Raymond Hammel, PT, DPT, MS


Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is an integrated treatment approach that engages several principles of motor control and learning to improve range of motion and strength. Both upper and lower extremity PNF diagonals resemble functional movements, but limited research exists regarding the potential of PNF as an examination tool. The following areas must be investigated to determine the potential influence of confounding variables of PNF: muscular irradiation, successive induction, length-tension relationship, force-velocity relationship, muscle contraction type. As grip strength is currently used as a predictor for overall health, examining grip strength during the movement patterns of PNF may give important diagnostic information regarding location of patient impairments. This research aims to determine the potential usefulness of PNF as a diagnostic tool by separating PNF diagonals into parts, in order to determine the relationship between individual parts and the full movement pattern on grip strength.